The History of Mongolia

The History of Mongolia

Description

A significant aspect of this work is the emphasis on source materials, including some translated from Mongolian and other languages for the first time. The source materials and other articles are all fully contextualized and situated by introductory material by the volumes editors. This is the first work in English to bring together significant articles in Mongolian studies in one place, which will be widely welcomed by scholars and researchers in this field. This essential reference in two volumes includes works by noted scholars including Charles Bawden, Igor de Rachewiltz, David Morgan, Owen Lattimore and Caroline Humphrey. It also includes excerpts from translations of source documents, such as the works of Rashid al-Din, The Secret History of the Mongols and the Yuan Shih. In addition, more recent historical periods are covered, with material such as Batmonhs speech that heralded Mongolias versions of glasnost and perestroika, as well as Baabars Buu Mart, a key work associated with the Democratic Revolution of 1990.

Table of contents

Volume I ......Page 2
Contents......Page 6
Preface......Page 10
Note on Transliteration......Page 11
Acknowledgements......Page 12
List of Maps......Page 14
PART 1: THE PRE-CHINGGISID ERA......Page 16
Introduction......Page 18
1 Ancient Inner Asian Nomads: Their Economic Basis and Its Significance in Chinese History......Page 25
Manchuria and Inner Mongolia......Page 29
Northern Mongolia and South Siberia......Page 33
Xinjiang and Contiguous Regions......Page 37
Further Considerations......Page 42
Conclusions......Page 47
2 The Account of the Xiongnu......Page 58
3 The Turk Imperial Tradition in the Pre-Chinggisid Era......Page 83
4 The Geography of Chingis Khan......Page 111
PART 2: CHINGGIS KHAN AND THE MONGOL EMPIRE......Page 122
Introduction......Page 124
5 The Secret History of the Mongols......Page 134
6 Some Remarks on the Ideological Foundations of Chingis Khan`s Empire......Page 180
I Introduction......Page 189
II Tribute and Levy......Page 194
III Mongolian Tributary Practices in the West......Page 202
8 Some Reflections on Cinggis Qan`s Jasag......Page 227
The Four Uluses......Page 244
Ulus and Rulership......Page 246
The Distribution of Troops and Spoils......Page 247
Territorial Appanages......Page 249
The Emergence of the Khanates in Western and Central Asia......Page 251
Ulus and Khanate in the Far East......Page 253
Conclusion......Page 254
Appendix......Page 255
Of Their Character, Good and Bad, Their Customs, Food, etc.......Page 264
Of War, Their Battle Array, Arms, Their Cunning in Engagements, Cruelty to Captives, Assault on Fortifications, Their Bad Faith with Those Who Surrender to Them, etc.......Page 266
The Tartars and Their Dwellings......Page 271
The Food of the Tartars......Page 273
How They Make Cosmos......Page 274
The Animals They Eat, Their Clothes and Their Hunting......Page 275
The Duties of the Women and Their Work......Page 276
Of Their Justice and Judgments, Death and Burial......Page 277
Baatu`s Orda and How They Were Received by Him......Page 278
The Journey to the Court of Mangu Chan......Page 281
The River Iagat and Various Regions and Races......Page 282
Of Their Hunger and Thirst and Other Miseries They Endured on Their Journey......Page 283
How Buri Was Put to Death......Page 284
How the Nestorians and Saracens Intermingle, and of Their Temples......Page 285
Of Their Temples and Idols and How They Comport Themselves in the Worship of Their Gods......Page 286
Of Various Tribes and of Men Who Used to Eat Their Parents......Page 287
Things Done, Seen and Heard by Friar William at Mangu`s Court......Page 290
Mangu`s Palace at Caracorum, and the Feast of Easter......Page 300
Master William`s Sickness and the Death of the Nestorian Priest......Page 304
Caracorum and the Family of Mangu......Page 305
The Soothsayers......Page 307
12 Guard and Government in the Reign of the Grand Qan Mongke, 1251 - 59......Page 312
Mongke and the Mongolian Empire......Page 313
Administration of the Realm......Page 315
Recruitment and Utilization of Central Government Personnel......Page 318
Mongke`s Central Secretariat - Its Genealogy and General Characteristics......Page 321
13 The Dissolution of the Mongol Empire......Page 330
Territorial Organization of the Mongol Empire, 1250 - 1260......Page 373
The End of Mongolia as Imperial Center, 1260 - 1264......Page 378
The Limits of Yuan Control in Central Asia......Page 380
Yuan Control in Mongolia......Page 385
Conclusion......Page 393
Volume II ......Page 406
Contents......Page 410
PART 3: YUAN AND LATE MEDIEVAL PERIOD......Page 414
Introduction......Page 416
Kubilai Khan......Page 424
Mismanagement and the Chinese Response......Page 454
Ahmad and Financial Difficulties......Page 455
Integration of the Southern Sung......Page 459
The Grand Canal......Page 462
The Fiscal Policies of Lu Shih-Jung......Page 463
Sangha and Buddhist Abuses......Page 464
Khubilai`s Problems with Religions......Page 469
17 Structure and Function in the Yuan Imperial Government......Page 477
Organs of the Imperial Government......Page 478
The Structures and Functions of the Bureaus......Page 482
General Features of Yuan Rule......Page 490
18 Imperial Governance in Yuan Times......Page 501
Attempts to Overcome a Crisis of State: The Oirats Gain in Strength......Page 520
The Khan and the Taish, Working Hand-in-hand to Put the Country in Order......Page 526
20 The Twelve Tumen of the Aglag Khuree Khalkha Mongols......Page 531
The Six Tumen or Six realms......Page 544
The Four Oirat......Page 546
22 The Jewel Translucent Sutra......Page 550
23 Early Lamaism in Mongolia......Page 561
The Religious Situation in Eastern Mongolia During the 1st Part of the 17th Century......Page 592
The Functions of `Pure` Shamanism......Page 597
A Pattern of Buddhist Missionary Approach......Page 605
The Missionary Methods of Neyici Toyin......Page 608
The Domoi (1739) and the Hor Cos Byun (1819 - Huth Translation) Compared......Page 620
25 Titles, Appanages, Marriages, and Officials: A Comparison of Political Forms in the Zunghar and Thirteenth-century Mongol Empires......Page 633
The Ruler......Page 634
The Ruler`s Inner Circle......Page 637
Territorial and Administrative Structure......Page 639
Marriage Alliance......Page 643
Local Administration and Class Stratification......Page 644
Religion and Ethnicity......Page 646
Conclusion......Page 649
Volume III ......Page 658
Contents......Page 662
PART 4: THE QING PERIOD......Page 666
Politics and Influences......Page 668
Socila Issues......Page 671
THE TEXTS......Page 673
Introduction......Page 678
The Rise and Fall of the Zunghars......Page 682
Socio-economic Parallels: The Seventeenth-century Crisis......Page 686
The Hegemony of Inscriptions......Page 695
Conclusion: Three Views of the Conquest......Page 699
27 The Biography of Ondor Gegeen......Page 705
How Zanabazar Was Raised to Be the First Bogd, and How the Palace of the Khutagt Was Built......Page 710
28 The Khalkha Djirum......Page 714
29 The Economic Basis of feudalism in Mongolia......Page 723
The Form and Relationships of Property in Land......Page 724
Form and Relationships of Private Property in Livestock......Page 727
The Imperial Alba......Page 730
Conclusions......Page 732
30 The Spread of Trade to the Countryside......Page 736
31 Things and the Qing......Page 746
Dressing the Qing......Page 754
Visualizing the Qing......Page 757
Dress, Gender and Cultural Exchange......Page 764
32 The Mongol Rebellion of 1756 - 1757......Page 781
The Duties Carried Out by the Shav......Page 802
34 The Economy of the Monasteries......Page 820
The Location of Urga and Mount Khaan Uula......Page 825
Population of Khuree......Page 826
External Appearance of Khuree Streets......Page 828
The Khuree Market......Page 829
Peking Shops and Their Mode of Existance......Page 830
Urga Craft and Industrial Establishments......Page 832
Beggars......Page 836
A Police Unit in the Khuree......Page 837
Urga Slums......Page 839
The Mai-Mai-Ch`eng......Page 840
Streets of the Mai-Mai-Ch`eng......Page 841
Types of Chinese Shops......Page 842
Dwellings of the Mongols......Page 845
The Chinese Cemetery......Page 848
Administration of the Mai-Mai-Ch`eng......Page 849
Dzakha Deere (on the Outskirts)......Page 850
The New Urga Fortress......Page 851
The Russian Consulate......Page 853
36 Document 23: Petitions of Grievances Submitted by the People......Page 856
The Setting of Outer Mongolia......Page 869
Post-Boxer Reforms and Frontier Defense......Page 871
San-to and the New Administration......Page 873
Conclusion......Page 875
PART 5: TWENTIETH-CENTURY MONGOLIA......Page 880
Introduction......Page 882
Worshipping the Holy Mountain......Page 891
The Games......Page 892
Shooting Walnuts......Page 894
The Seven Khutuktus......Page 895
The Holy One`s Marriage......Page 896
Morlegtseg Semben or Soivon......Page 898
Namjiltunsag the Waiter......Page 900
The Manzshir Lama......Page 901
Badamdorj and Shanzav......Page 902
The Holy One`s Curios......Page 904
39 The Lamas of Mongolia......Page 909
"Death from the White Man Will Stand Behind You"......Page 920
The Horror of War!......Page 922
In the City of Living Gods, 30,000 Buddhas and 60,000 Monks......Page 924
A Son of Crusaders and Privateers......Page 927
The Camp of Martyrs......Page 932
Before the Face of Buddha......Page 934
"The Man with a Head Like a Saddle"......Page 939
The Historical Background of the Mongolian Revolution......Page 941
The Early Soviet Attitude to Mongolia......Page 942
The Formation of the Mongolian People`s Party......Page 943
The Mongol Delegates at Verkhneudinsk......Page 945
The Far Eastern Republic......Page 947
The Soviet Dilemma......Page 949
Ungern-Sternberg in Mongolia......Page 951
The Mongolian War of Revolution......Page 952
An Evaluation of the Ungern Threat......Page 954
Soviet Russia, Japan and China......Page 955
Conclusion......Page 956
Introduction......Page 961
The Establishment of the Civil Servants` Group......Page 963
The Unification of the Civil Servants` Group and the People`s Group and the Activities that Ensued......Page 966
A Re-examination of the Date of the Establishment of the Mongolian People`s Party......Page 968
Conclusion......Page 975
43 The Buriat Intelligentsia......Page 982
Nationalists......Page 983
Pan-Mongolists......Page 985
Russian (Czarist and Soviet) Agents......Page 988
Scholars and Educators......Page 990
Fate of the Buriat Intelligentsia......Page 991
Conclusions......Page 992
1922 - 1929......Page 997
Arrest and Examination 1930 - 1931......Page 1007
Trial and Judgement......Page 1019
45 The Great Purge......Page 1032
The Soviet Army Arrives......Page 1033
The Great Purge Begins......Page 1034
Lamas and Buriads Targeted......Page 1037
Choibalsan`s Next Instructions......Page 1038
The End of Amar......Page 1039
46 The Way of Life of Co-operative Herders......Page 1043
47 The Eight-hundredth Anniversary of Chinggis Khan......Page 1050
The Conception of the Chinggis Anniversary......Page 1051
Planning and Preparation for the Chinggis Anniversary......Page 1053
The Scientific Conference......Page 1054
The Chinggis Monument......Page 1055
The Aftermath of the Chinggis Anniversary......Page 1056
The Mongolian Nationalist Movement......Page 1057
A Person Who`s Forgotten His Mother......Page 1059
"People`s Revolution"......Page 1062
Us......Page 1066
49 Democracy Comes to Mongolia......Page 1070
The Events......Page 1072
50 Avgai Khad......Page 1091
Introduction......Page 1098
Historical Patterns of Pastoralism......Page 1099
Cooperatives (Horshoo)......Page 1110
Conclusion......Page 1114
Index......Page 1120

Details

  • Author: David Sneath (ed)
  • Publication Date: 2010
  • Publisher: Brill Academic Publishers
  • ISBN-13: 9781905246366
  • Pages: 1153
  • Format: pdf
  • Size: 16.9M
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