Abiotic Stress Adaptation in Plants: Physiological, Molecular and Genomic Foundation

Abiotic Stress Adaptation in Plants: Physiological, Molecular and Genomic Foundation

Description

Environmental insults such as extremes of temperature, extremes of water status as well as deteriorating soil conditions pose major threats to agriculture and food security. Employing contemporary tools and techniques from all branches of science, attempts are being made worldwide to understand how plants respond to abiotic stresses with the aim to help manipulate plant performance that will be better suited to withstand these stresses. This book on abiotic stress attempts to search for possible answers to several basic questions related to plant responses towards abiotic stresses. Presented in this book is a holistic view of the general principles of stress perception, signal transduction and regulation of gene expression. Further, chapters analyze not only model systems but extrapolate interpretations obtained from models to crops. Lastly, discusses how stress-tolerant crop or model plants have been or are being raised through plant breeding and genetic engineering approaches. Twenty three chapters, written by international authorities, integrate molecular details with overall plant structure and physiology, in a text-book style, including key references.

Table of contents

Abiotic Tolerance and Crop Improvement......Page 36
A Hunter Evolves as Collector and Cultivator......Page 37
III High Temperature Stress......Page 38
C High Temperature and Heat Stress......Page 39
D Impact on Quality of the Harvest......Page 40
IV Cold and Frost Stress......Page 41
B Effect on Development......Page 42
A Flood Tolerance in Rice......Page 43
VII Soil-Related Stresses......Page 44
VIII Climate Change and Stress in Plants......Page 45
References......Page 46
Sensors and Signal Transducers of Environmental Stress in Cyanobacteria......Page 48
I Introduction......Page 49
II Potential Sensors and Signal Transducers in Cyanobacteria......Page 50
A Positive and Negative Regulation of Gene Expression......Page 51
1 The Hik33-Rre26 System Regulates the Expression of Cold-Inducible Genes......Page 52
3 Hik33 is a Major Contributor to Signal Transduction during Oxidative Stress......Page 55
5 The Hik7-Rre29 System Regulates Gene Expression in Response to Phosphate Limitation......Page 56
1 The Hik27-Rre16 System Negatively Regulates Gene Expression in Response to Manganese Limitation......Page 57
A Serine/Threonine Protein Kinases, Tyrosine Protein Kinases and Protein Phosphatases......Page 58
C Supercoiling of DNA Is Involved in the Perception of Stress Signals and the Regulation of Gene Expression......Page 59
V Conclusions and Perspectives......Page 60
References......Page 61
Stress Signaling I: The Role of Abscisic Acid (ABA)......Page 65
II Initial Perception of the Stress......Page 67
A G Protein-Coupled Receptor-Like Protein......Page 68
B Genomes Uncoupled 5/Mg Chelatase H (GUN5/CHLH)......Page 69
C Flowering Control Locus A (FCA)......Page 70
A Second Messengers......Page 71
C Sucrose Non-fermenting-Related Protein Kinase 2 (SnRK2) Proteins......Page 73
D Phosphatases......Page 74
E Protein Modification......Page 75
A Cis-Acting Elements for ABA-dependent Gene Expression......Page 76
Cold Stress Responses......Page 78
B Heat Stress Responses......Page 80
VII Cross-Talk Between Abiotic and Biotic Stress Responses......Page 81
Box 3.2 Comparative Genomics Approaches to Stress Tolerance......Page 85
VIII Regulation of ABA Metabolism......Page 86
References......Page 89
Stress Signaling II: Calcium Sensing and Signaling......Page 106
A Calcium Signatures......Page 107
B Role of Calcium Signatures......Page 108
III Calcium Sensing and Signaling......Page 109
1.2 Calmodulin and Calmodulin-Like in Abiotic Stresses......Page 110
1.3 Calmodulin-Binding Proteins in Abiotic Stresses......Page 111
2.1 Structure and Functions of Calcineurin B-Like proteins in Abiotic Stresses......Page 112
2.2 Calcineurin B-Like-Interacting Protein Kinases in Abiotic Stresses......Page 113
1.1 Structure and Regulation of Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases......Page 114
1.2 Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases in Abiotic Stress Signaling......Page 115
3 Other Calcium-Binding Proteins......Page 116
References......Page 117
Stress Signaling III: Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)......Page 122
A The Cytosol and ROS Movement......Page 123
C Peroxisomes and Photorespiration......Page 124
F Antioxidant Regulation......Page 125
A Redox Regulation and ROS Perception......Page 126
A Genomics and Microarrays......Page 128
B Transgenic Approaches......Page 129
V Conclusions......Page 130
References......Page 131
A Biotic or Abiotic Stress?......Page 134
I Introduction......Page 135
III General Stress Response......Page 136
IV ABA and Jasmonic Acid: Usual Suspects for Interaction......Page 138
1 Auxin......Page 140
2 Cytokinin and Brassinosteroids......Page 142
B Salicylic Acid......Page 143
C DELLA Proteins as Central Integrators?......Page 144
Box 6.1 Biotic Stress Pathways......Page 147
References......Page 148
Protein Kinases and Phosphatases for Stress Signal Transduction in Plants1......Page 154
A Gene Families......Page 156
1 Disease Resistance......Page 159
2 Hormone Signaling......Page 161
3 Plant Development......Page 162
1 MAPKs......Page 163
2 MAPKKs......Page 164
1 Disease Resistance......Page 165
2 Hormone Signaling......Page 168
IV Calcium-Activated Protein Kinases......Page 169
1 CDPKs......Page 170
4 CIPKs and CBLs......Page 171
1 Osmotic Stress......Page 173
4 Salt Stress......Page 174
5 Novel Stress-Related Interactions......Page 175
1 Protein Phosphatase P......Page 176
3 Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases......Page 178
1 Hormone Signaling and Development......Page 179
3 Novel Interactions......Page 180
References......Page 181
Nitrogen Source Influences Root to Shoot Signaling Under Drought......Page 195
II Nitrogen Source and Availability Influences Signaling Under Drought......Page 196
B Ammonium and Nitrate Fertilization Alters Response to Drought......Page 198
III Charge Balance in the Xylem Accounts for Changes Induced by Nutrition and Drought......Page 199
A Ammonium Nutrition......Page 200
B Nitrate Nutrition......Page 201
References......Page 202
Abiotic Stress Responses: Complexities in Gene Expression......Page 205
I Introduction......Page 206
LEA Genes......Page 207
III Resources for Identification of Novel Genes......Page 208
IV Genomics-based Approaches for Understanding the Response of Plants Towards Abiotic Stresses......Page 210
B Analysis of Transcript Profiles: Transcriptomics......Page 211
SAGE......Page 213
2 Transcriptional Profiling Reveals That Metabolic Re-Adjustment is a Hallmark of Abiotic Stress Response......Page 214
2.1 Kinetics of Gene Expression Pattern: Early versus Late Responses......Page 215
2.2 Kinetics of Gene Expression Patterns: Developmental Stage/Organ-specific Regulation......Page 216
C Large Scale Study of Proteins: Proteomics......Page 217
A Interacting Partners of Two Component System......Page 220
cDNA AFLP......Page 212
Box 9.3 Tools of Proteomics......Page 218
Yeast Two Hybrid System......Page 219
B High Throughput Yeast Two Hybrid Analysis......Page 221
VI Future Prospects......Page 222
References......Page 223
Promoters and Transcription Factors in Abiotic Stress-Responsive Gene Expression......Page 227
I Introduction......Page 228
II Significant ABA-Independent Gene Expression Under Abiotic Stress......Page 229
A DREB1/CBFs: Major Transcription Factors that Regulate Many Cold-Inducible Genes Involved in Stress Tolerance......Page 230
B The DREB/DRE Regulons in Plants Other than Arabidopsis......Page 231
D DREB2 Proteins Function in Drought, High Salinity and Heat Stress-Responsive Gene Expression......Page 232
IV ABA-Responsive Gene Expression Under Abiotic Stresses......Page 234
V Other Types of ABA-Dependent Gene Expression Under Abiotic Stresses......Page 237
VI Conclusions and Future Perspectives......Page 238
References......Page 239
Epigenetic Regulation: Chromatin Modeling and Small RNAs......Page 245
II Epigenetics......Page 247
1.1 Acetylation......Page 248
1.3 Phosphorylation......Page 249
1.7 Sumoylation......Page 250
2 DNA Methylation......Page 251
2.1.3 Bisulfite Method......Page 252
Microarray-Based Methods......Page 256
3.1 Small RNAs......Page 257
Methylation-Sensitive Single-Strand Conformation Analysis (MS-SSCA)......Page 254
Base-Specific Cleavage Reaction Combined with MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry......Page 255
A Abiotic Stress-Induced Changes in Histone Code......Page 258
B Regulation of DNA Methylation by Abiotic Stresses......Page 261
D Transgeneration Stress Memory......Page 262
Conclusions and Perspectives......Page 263
References......Page 264
Ion Homeostasis......Page 271
II The Need for Ion Homeostasis in Salt Tolerance......Page 272
A Models for Plant Ion Homeostasis......Page 273
B Driving Force and Fluxes......Page 276
A Cellular Na+ Homeostasis......Page 277
A Transporters Involved in Cellular Na+ Uptake......Page 279
C Transporters Involved in Na+ Compartmentalization......Page 281
D Transporters Involved in Long Distance Transport of Na+......Page 282
VI Conclusions and Outlook......Page 283
References......Page 285
Glutathione Homeostasis: Crucial for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants......Page 289
I Introduction......Page 290
II Regulation of Biosynthesis, Turnover and Compartmentation of Glutathione......Page 291
III Uptake and Transport of Glutathione......Page 292
V Changes in Glutathione Homeostasis in Plants Under Abiotic Stresses......Page 293
A Salt Stress......Page 294
C Low Temperature......Page 296
D Ozone Toxicity......Page 297
Heavy Metal Toxicity......Page 298
VII Glutathione as Signaling Molecule and Role of Glutaredoxins......Page 299
Crosstalk and Interaction with Other Biomolecules......Page 302
References......Page 304
Water Balance and the Regulation of Stomatal Movements......Page 309
I Introduction......Page 310
1.2 ABA Is the Main Signal......Page 311
1.3 The Hydraulic Signal......Page 312
1 ABA Metabolism......Page 313
1 Changes in Guard Cell Turgor are Responsible for Stomatal Movements......Page 314
2.3 Potassium Channels......Page 316
3 Reorganization of Membranes and Cytoskeleton......Page 317
1.2 Genetic Screens Identify Kinases and Phosphatases......Page 318
1.3 Intracellular Calcium......Page 319
1.6 Lipid Derived Signaling Intermediates......Page 320
3.1 Extracellular Calcium......Page 321
3.2 Carbon Dioxide Signaling......Page 322
V Conclusions......Page 323
References......Page 324
Responses to Macronutrient Deprivation......Page 332
A Nitrogen in the Environment......Page 334
B Transport of Nitrogen-Containing Compounds......Page 335
C Regulation of Transport......Page 338
D Chlamydomonas Nitrate and Nitrite Reductase......Page 339
E Glutamine Synthetase......Page 340
A Sulfur in the Environment......Page 341
1 Hydrolysis......Page 342
2 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane......Page 343
3 Transport into the Chloroplast......Page 344
C Reductive Assimilation......Page 345
B Genes Responsive to Sulfur Deprivation......Page 347
C Genes Controlling Sulfur Deprivation Responses......Page 348
D Sequence of Regulatory Events......Page 350
A Phosphate in the Environment......Page 352
C Phosphate Transport......Page 353
E Nucleic Acids......Page 354
A Mutant Isolation......Page 355
1 PSR1 (Regulator in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Associated with Phosphate Stress Response)......Page 356
1 Phosphatases......Page 357
4 Electron Valves......Page 358
VIII Conclusions......Page 359
References......Page 360
Osmolyte Regulation in Abiotic Stress......Page 374
II Osmolytes and their Types......Page 375
A Glycine Betaine......Page 376
E Myo-inositol and Methylated Inositols......Page 378
A Regulation of Proline Metabolism Under Stress......Page 379
C Myo-Inositol and Its Role in Stress Tolerance......Page 381
A Organic Osmolytes in Renal Cells......Page 383
C Organic Osmolytes in Brain cells......Page 385
V Mechanism of Action of Osmolytes......Page 386
A Osmolytes as Chaperones......Page 387
B Osmolytes in Stabilization of Proteins......Page 388
VI Unique Osmolytes: Glucosylglycerol/Diphosphoinositols......Page 389
VII Transgenics with Compatible Solutes for Salinity Stress Tolerance......Page 390
References......Page 392
Programmed Cell Death in Plants......Page 396
I Introduction......Page 397
II Anatomy of Cell Death......Page 398
III Biochemistry of Cell Death......Page 399
V Role of Mitochondrion......Page 400
VI Role of Chloroplast......Page 401
VII Signals in Cell Death......Page 402
VIII Cell Death Regulator......Page 403
References......Page 404
Varietal Improvement for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants: Special Reference to Salinity in Rice......Page 410
The Need for Abiotic Stress-Tolerant Cultivars......Page 412
III Past Breeding Efforts......Page 413
B Intracrop Variability (Intervarietal/Genotypic Tolerance)......Page 415
V Breeding Salinity Tolerance with High Yield......Page 416
VI The Concept of Heritability......Page 417
B Association Studies......Page 419
E Heterosis......Page 420
5 Mutation Breeding......Page 421
B DSMS Methodology......Page 422
2 Screening in Microplots......Page 424
4 Salinity Screening in Solution Culture......Page 425
B Screening Criteria......Page 426
9 Mean Tolerance Index (MTI)......Page 427
X Breeding Strategy to Enhance Salinity Tolerance Through Pyramiding of Mechanisms......Page 428
C Farmers Participatory Approach......Page 429
B Climatic Factors......Page 431
XIII Collaborative Research......Page 432
XIV Rice Varieties Developed for Salt Tolerance......Page 433
XVI Conclusions......Page 434
References......Page 435
Transgenic Approaches......Page 439
I Introduction......Page 440
1 Sensors of Stress Signal......Page 441
Protein Kinases......Page 442
Calcium-Dependent Proteins......Page 443
B Engineering Genes of Transcriptional Regulation......Page 444
1 Zinc Finger Proteins......Page 445
2 Ethylene Responsive Element Binding Proteins (EREBPs)......Page 446
3 Dehydration Responsive Element Binding Proteins/C-Repeat Binding Factors......Page 447
5 NAC Proteins......Page 448
C Engineering Genes for Redox Regulation......Page 449
D Engineering Genes for Osmotic Regulation......Page 451
E Engineering Genes for Cellular Protection......Page 456
F Engineering Genes for Ionic Balance......Page 457
References......Page 460
Marker Assisted Breeding......Page 473
I Introduction......Page 474
II Molecular Markers as Tools for Dissecting Quantitative Traits......Page 475
Box 20.1 How Will New Marker Technologies Impact Marker-Assisted Breeding?......Page 476
C Strategies for Marker-Assisted Selection......Page 477
III Case Studies from a Model Crop: MAS for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Rice......Page 479
B Salinity......Page 480
C Phosphorus Deficiency......Page 482
D Drought......Page 483
A Association Mapping for Abiotic Stress Tolerance......Page 484
B Variety Development and Gene Deployment......Page 485
2 Using a Gene and Plant Ontology......Page 486
V Conclusions......Page 487
References......Page 488
Stress, Mutators, Mutations and Stress Resistance......Page 492
Mutators in Bacteria......Page 493
B Mutators in Eukaryotes......Page 495
C Organellar Mutators......Page 496
III Mutators in Stress Resistance Implications......Page 497
Genetic, Circumstantial and Speculative Evidence for Mutators in Resistance to Stress......Page 498
Can Stress Increase the Mutation Frequency to Resistance?......Page 499
VI Conclusions......Page 501
References......Page 502
Systems Biology of Abiotic Stress: The Elephant and the Blind Men......Page 505
I Introduction......Page 506
II First Responders: Stomatal Guard Cells......Page 507
A Signaling......Page 508
B Vesicular Trafficking......Page 509
1 Integrating Signal, Structure and Function......Page 510
B Stress Beyond the Stomate......Page 514
References......Page 515
Global Climate Change, Stress and Plant Productivity......Page 523
II Elevated Carbon Dioxide......Page 524
B Respiration......Page 525
D Nitrogen Assimilation......Page 526
E Water Use Efficiency......Page 527
F Crop Productivity......Page 528
III High Temperature......Page 529
B Photosynthesis......Page 530
C Crop Phenology......Page 531
D Crop Productivity......Page 533
IV Ultraviolet Radiation......Page 534
VI Biotic Stress......Page 535
VII Conclusions and Future Prospects......Page 536
References......Page 537

Details

  • Author: Ashwani Pareek, S.K. Sopory, Hans J. Bohnert, Govindjee
  • Edition: 1st Edition.
  • Publication Date: 2010
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN-10: 9048131111
  • ISBN-13: 9789048131112
  • Pages: 545
  • Format: pdf
  • Size: 30.6M
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