5 Easy Pieces: The Impact of Fisheries on Marine Ecosystems (State of the World`s Oceans)

5 Easy Pieces: The Impact of Fisheries on Marine Ecosystems (State of the World`s Oceans)

Description

5Easy Pieces features five contributions, originally published in Nature and Science, demonstrating the massive impacts of modern industrial fisheries on marine ecosystems. Initially published over an eight-year period, from 1995 to 2003, these articles illustrate a transition in scientific thoughtfrom the initially-contested realization that the crisis of fisheries and their underlying ocean ecosystems was, in fact, global to its broad acceptance by mainstream scientific and public opinion.Daniel Pauly, a well-known fisheries expert who was a co-author of all five articles, presents each original article here and surrounds it with a rich array of contemporary comments, many of which led Pauly and his colleagues to further study. In addition, Pauly documents how popular media reported on the articles and their findings. By doing so, he demonstrates how science evolves. In one chapter, for example, the popular media pick up a contribution and use Paulys conclusions to contextualize current political disputes; in another, what might be seen as nitpicking by fellow scientists leads Pauly and his colleagues to strengthen their case that commercial fishing is endangering the global marine ecosystem. This structure also allows readers to see how scientists interactions with the popular media can shape the reception of their own, sometimes controversial, scientific studies.In an epilog, Pauly reflects on the ways that scientific consensus emerges from discussions both within and outside the scientific community.

Table of contents

Half Title ......Page 4
Title......Page 6
Copyright ......Page 7
Table of Contents......Page 8
Figures ......Page 10
Box 1.1: Definitions of Fish, Landings, and Trophic Level ......Page 18
Box 1.2: Why We Can`t Use Mean Trophic Levels to Calculate Primary Production Required ......Page 19
Box 2.1: What is a FishBase?......Page 46
Box 2.2: Definition and Interpretations of the Fishing-in-Balance (FiB) Index ......Page 70
Box 4.1: Single Species Stock Assessments ......Page 109
Box 4.2: Trophic Levels as Indicators of Fisheries Impacts......Page 113
Box 4.3: Sustainable Coral Reef Fisheries: An Oxymoron? ......Page 119
Table 1.1: Reported world fisheries catches and ancillary statistics......Page 25
Table 1.2: Global estimates of primary production required to sustain world fisheries......Page 27
Table A1: Some estimates of the potential fisheries of the oceans ......Page 137
Figure 1.1: FAO Areas, as used to disaggregate catch data.......Page 16
Figure 1.2: Approach used to estimate the primary production required to sustain catches.......Page 23
Figure 1.3: Frequency distribution of transfer efficiencies in 48 trophic models.......Page 24
Figure 1.4: Trophic flux model of the northeastern Venezuelan shelf.......Page 41
Figure 1.5: Transfer efficiency (%) in 48 models of trophic flows in aquaticecosystems.......Page 42
Figure 2.1: Bouncing back: Fish stocks recovered two years after a small reserve was set up.......Page 49
Figure 2.2: Global trends of mean trophic level of fisheries landings, 19501994.......Page 52
Figure 2.3: Trends of mean trophic level of fisheries landings in northern temperate areas.......Page 53
Figure 2.4: Trends of mean trophic levels of fisheries landings in the intertropical belt.......Page 54
Figure 2.5: High-amplitude changes of mean trophic levels in fisheries landings.......Page 55
Figure 2.6: Plots of mean trophic levels versus fisheries landings in four marine regions.......Page 56
Figure 2.7: Trends in mean trophic level of landings from marine waters.......Page 61
Figure 2.8: Illustrating the effect of taxonomic overaggregation on evidence forfishing down.......Page 64
Figure 2.9: Illustrating the effect of spatial overaggregation on evidence for fishing down.......Page 65
Figure 2.10: Trends in mean trophic level in Indian States and Union Territories.......Page 68
Figure 2.11: Basic trends in Indian fisheries.......Page 71
Figure 2.12: Schematic representation of the fishing down process.......Page 73
Figure 3.1: Time series of global and Chinese marine fisheries catches.......Page 80
Figure 3.2: Maps used to correct Chinese marine fisheries catches.......Page 82
Chinese Responses ......Page 95
Figure 4.1: Estimated global fish landings, 19501999.......Page 111
Figure 4.2: Fisheries are characterized by a decline of mean trophic level.......Page 114
Figure 4.3: Schematic representation of the effects of environmental variation on fish population.......Page 122
Figure 5.1: Fraction of the sea bottom and adjacent waters contributing to the worlds fisheries.......Page 126
Figure 5.2: Recent patterns and near-future predictions of global oil production and fish catches.......Page 128
Figure A1.1: Global marine catches, 19481993.......Page 138
Figure A1.2: Putative transfer efficiency as a function of total phytoplankton production.......Page 144
Figure A2.1: Trophic level trends in Cuban landings, in the Gulf of Thailand, and in global marine fisheries.......Page 146
Figure A2.2: Relationships between trophic level and body length in fish.......Page 148
Preface ......Page 12
A Summer in Manila......Page 14
Primary Production Required to Sustain Global Fisheries ......Page 22
A Response and a Tedious Rejoinder ......Page 29
The World According to Pimm......Page 33
Coverage by the Mass Media......Page 37
A Large Fermi Solution ......Page 40
Another Summer in Manila ......Page 44
Fishing Down Marine Food Webs ......Page 50
FAO`s Comments and a Rejoinder ......Page 58
The CBD and Its "Marine Trophic Index" ......Page 69
The Jellyfish Sandwich ......Page 72
Spring in Vancouver Island ......Page 76
Systematic Distortion in World Fisheries Catch Trends ......Page 79
The Economist, the FAO, and the World ......Page 86
The Media, or How Everyone Likes a Difference Sauce ......Page 102
What is Sustainability, Anyway? ......Page 106
Towards Sustainability in Global Fisheries ......Page 107
Stepping into the Future ......Page 124
The Future for Fisheries ......Page 125
The Future Revisited ......Page 133
Epilogue ......Page 134
Appendix 1: The Origins of the 100 Million Tonnes Myth ......Page 136
Appendix 2: Rejoinder: Response to Caddy et al.......Page 145
Appendix 3: Post-1998 Studies of "Fishing Down"......Page 150
Endnotes......Page 156
Acknowledgments......Page 174
References ......Page 176
Index ......Page 198

Details

  • Author: Daniel Pauly
  • Edition: 1
  • Publication Date: 2010
  • Publisher: Island Press
  • ISBN-10: 159726718X, 1597267198
  • ISBN-13: 9781597267182, 9781597267199
  • Pages: 207
  • Format: pdf
  • Size: 5.6M
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