3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy (Canary Islands Winter School of Astrophysics)

3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy (Canary Islands Winter School of Astrophysics)

Description

Simultaneously storing both spectral and spatial information, 3D spectroscopy offers a new way to tackle astrophysical problems, and opens up new lines of research. Since its inception in the eighties and early nineties, research in this field has grown enormously. Large telescopes all around the world are now equipped with integral field units, and two instruments of the future James Webb Space Telescope will have integral field spectroscopic capabilities. Nowadays, more effort is dedicated to refining techniques for reducing, analyzing and interpreting the data obtained with 3D spectrographs. Containing lectures from the seventeenth Winter School of the Canary Islands Astrophysics Institute, this book explores new 3D spectroscopy techniques and data. A broad and balanced presentation of research in this field, it introduces astronomers to a new generation of instruments, widening the appeal of integral field spectroscopy and helping it become a powerful tool in tackling astrophysical problems.

Table of contents

Half title......Page 3
Title......Page 7
Copyright......Page 8
Contents......Page 9
Contributors......Page 10
Participants......Page 11
Preface......Page 13
Acknowledgements......Page 14
Abbreviations......Page 15
1.1 Preface......Page 19
Principle of operation and terminology......Page 22
Methods of image dissection: spatial sampling......Page 23
Detectors and spectrographs......Page 24
Coupling the IFU to the spectrograph......Page 27
Examples of real IFUs......Page 28
Extracting the spectra......Page 29
Data representation, data formats......Page 30
1.2.2 Comparison with classical techniques......Page 31
Slit e.ects......Page 32
Atmospheric refraction......Page 33
Ultra-deep faint object 3D spectroscopy......Page 35
1.3 A brief history of 3D spectroscopy......Page 36
1.4.1 Optical fibers......Page 43
1.4.2 Lens arrays......Page 45
1.4.3 Lens array - fiber hybrids......Page 48
1.4.4 Slicers......Page 49
1.4.5 Non-IFS 3D instruments......Page 50
1.4.6 3D detectors......Page 52
Multi-slit masks......Page 53
1.4.8 Figure-of-merit......Page 54
REFERENCES......Page 55
2.2 Background......Page 58
2.3.1 IFUs versus other instruments......Page 59
2.3.2 The observing process......Page 60
Overview......Page 61
Acquisition......Page 62
Object and sky spectra......Page 63
Integration times......Page 64
Dithering and mosaicking......Page 65
Flat-fielding......Page 66
Telluric calibration......Page 68
Flux calibration......Page 70
Dark current......Page 72
Summary of observing strategies......Page 73
2.4.1 The Sampling Theorem......Page 74
2.4.2 Undersampling......Page 77
2.4.3 Sampling images......Page 78
Noise......Page 81
Practical interpolants......Page 82
Irregular sampling......Page 84
2.5 Overview of data reduction issues......Page 85
2.5.2 Detector linearity and saturation......Page 86
2.5.5 Flat-fielding......Page 87
2.5.8 Spatial calibration......Page 90
2.5.10 Extraction......Page 91
2.5.12 Telluric correction......Page 93
2.5.14 Reconstruction in 3D......Page 94
2.5.18 Summary of data reduction issues......Page 96
2.6.2 Error propagation......Page 97
2.6.4 File storage format......Page 101
2.6.5 Formats for reduced data......Page 102
2.7 Acknowledgements......Page 103
REFERENCES......Page 104
3.1.1 The detector limit I: six into two dimensions......Page 105
3.1.2 Merit functions......Page 106
3.1.3 Why spectral resolution is so important......Page 107
3.1.4 The detector limit II: read noise......Page 109
3.2.1 Basic spectrograph design......Page 110
3.2.2 Dispersive elements......Page 111
3.2.3 VPH grating operation and design......Page 112
Blazed VPH gratings......Page 113
Unusual VPH grating modes......Page 115
3.2.5 Coupling formats and methods: overview......Page 116
Causes of FRD......Page 117
Quality versus quantity......Page 118
3.2.7 Fibre + lenslet coupling......Page 119
3.2.8 Slicer coupling......Page 121
3.2.9 Direct lenslet coupling......Page 124
3.2.10 Filtered multi-slit (FMS) coupling......Page 125
3.2.11 Multi-object configurations......Page 126
Sky subtraction......Page 127
3.3 Interferometry I: Fabry-Perot interferometry......Page 128
3.3.1 Basic concepts and field widening......Page 129
Grating-dispersed FPI......Page 130
3.3.6 Examples of instruments......Page 131
3.4 Interferometry II: spatial heterodyne spectroscopy......Page 132
3.5 Summary of existing instruments......Page 133
3.7 Future instruments......Page 135
3.7.1 Ground-based instruments on 10m telescopes......Page 136
3.7.2 Ground-based instruments on 30-50m-class telescopes......Page 137
3.7.3 Space-borne instruments......Page 138
3.7.4 Summary of future instruments......Page 139
REFERENCES......Page 140
4.2.1 Where is the signal?......Page 144
4.2.2 Noises......Page 146
Systematic error: example......Page 148
4.3.1 From a cube to an image......Page 150
4.4.1 Sky emission, zodiacal light and thermal background......Page 153
4.4.2 Subtracting a background......Page 154
Beware of instrumental e.ects......Page 155
The case of atmospheric absorption features......Page 156
Atmospheric refraction......Page 157
4.5.2 The deep-field approach......Page 158
Relative normalization......Page 159
Ready to co-add?......Page 160
A simple illustrated example......Page 162
Relative registration and normalization of the exposures......Page 163
Simple illustrated examples......Page 164
4.6.2 Binning......Page 165
4.7.1 Data mining......Page 166
4.8 Model fitting......Page 167
4.8.2 A step-by-step example of emission-line fitting......Page 168
Systems and constraints......Page 170
Determining the error bars......Page 171
The all-in-one and ultimate solutions......Page 173
REFERENCES......Page 174
5.1.1 Motivation for integral field spectroscopy......Page 176
5.1.2 Fundamental considerations based on technical constraints......Page 177
5.1.4 Examples of integral field spectroscopic studies......Page 178
5.1.5 Galactic versus extragalactic science......Page 180
Excursion: history of supermassive black holes......Page 181
Excursion: line of argument for proving the Galactic Centre black hole......Page 182
Excursion: Stellar spectra of early- and late-type stars in the infrared......Page 183
Excursion: from velocity to mass I: the virial theorem......Page 184
Excursion: from velocities to mass II: BahcallTremaine estimator......Page 185
5.2.2 The dark mass concentration in the central parsec of the Milky Way......Page 186
Excursion: from accelerations and orbits to mass......Page 187
5.2.5 SINFONI in the Galactic Centre: young stars and infrared flares in the central light month......Page 188
5.2.6 Again: SINFONI in the Galactic Centre: young stars and infrared flares in the central light month......Page 189
Excursion: the Eddington luminosity......Page 190
5.3.1 The nuclear cluster of the Milky Way: star formation and velocity dispersion in the central 0.5parsec......Page 191
5.3.2 The dark mass concentration in the central parsec of the Milky Way......Page 192
5.3.3 Stellar dynamics in the Galactic Centre: proper motions and anisotropy......Page 193
5.3.4 Stellar disk in the Galactic Centre: a remnant of a dense accretion disk? and the stellar cusp around the supermassive black hole in the Galactic Centre......Page 194
5.3.5 SINFONI in the Galactic Centre: young stars and infrared flares in the central light month......Page 195
Excursion: star formation in a nutshell......Page 197
5.4.1 A near-infrared spectral imaging study of T Tau......Page 199
Excursion: molecular hydrogen lines in the infrared......Page 200
5.4.2 Spatially resolved imaging spectroscopy of T Tauri......Page 201
Excursion: microjets in pre-main sequence stars......Page 202
5.4.4 Sub-arcsecond morphology and kinematics of the DG Tauri jet in the [OI]6300 line and DG Tau: a shocking jet?......Page 203
5.4.5 The three-dimensional structure of HH 32 from GMOS IFU spectroscopy......Page 205
5.4.6 Collimated molecular jets from high-mass young stars: IRAS 18151-1208......Page 207
5.4.7 GEMINI multi-object spectrograph integral field unit spectroscopy of the 167--317 (LV2) proplyd in Orion......Page 209
Excursion: velocity moments......Page 210
5.5.1 Martian surface mineralogy from 0.8 to 1.05m TIGER spectra-imagery measurements in Terra Sirenum and Tharsis Montes formation......Page 211
Excursion: principal component analysis......Page 213
5.5.2 Titan`s bright spots: multi-band spectroscopic measurement of surface diversity and hazes......Page 214
Excursion: radiative transfer modelling......Page 215
REFERENCES......Page 216
6.1 Introduction......Page 218
6.1.2 Ionization structure and kinematics in AGN......Page 219
6.1.3 Interstellar medium in high-z gravitational lens systems......Page 221
6.2.1 Astrophysical relevance of (Ultra) Luminous Infrared Galaxies......Page 222
6.2.2 Structure of the stellar and ionized gas distribution......Page 224
6.2.4 Detection of AGN......Page 226
(Circum)nuclear regions: rotation and starburst-driven outflows......Page 229
6.2.6 Merger evolution and ionized gas kinematics......Page 231
6.2.7 Large-scale shocks as ionization sources in extended nebulae......Page 235
6.2.8 (U)LIRGs and high-z star-forming galaxies......Page 237
6.3.1 Optical wide field IFS on the VLT: MUSE......Page 238
6.3.4 Mid-IR IFS on the JWST: MIRI......Page 239
REFERENCES......Page 240
7.1 Introduction......Page 243
7.2 Data formats for storing IFS reduced data......Page 244
7.3.2 Checking 3D data using IRAF......Page 245
7.3.4 Available software for specific instruments......Page 248
7.3.5 Exercises......Page 250
7.4.1 Installing the LCL library......Page 252
7.4.3 Installing E3D......Page 253
7.4.5 Installing R3D......Page 254
7.5 E3D: the Euro3D visualization tool......Page 255
7.5.1 Working with E3D: the GUI......Page 257
7.5.2 Quick look over the various windows of the E3D GUI......Page 258
7.5.3 Main-menu options......Page 260
7.5.4 Menu options of the Spaxels Inspector......Page 263
7.5.5 The Tools menu......Page 264
7.5.6 Menu options of the Spectra Inspector......Page 265
7.6 Sky subtraction......Page 267
Software to subtract the sky background......Page 269
7.7.1 Emission-line fitting......Page 270
7.7.2 Gas kinematics......Page 275
7.8 Decoupling spectra of different objects: crowded field spectroscopy......Page 279
7.8.1 Components of galfit3d......Page 280
7.8.2 Installation of galfit3d......Page 281
7.9.3 cubeshiftdelta.pl......Page 282
7.10.2 IFU data reduction......Page 284
Identification of the position of the spectra on the detector......Page 285
Distortion correction......Page 286
Wavelength solution......Page 287
REFERENCES......Page 289

Details

  • Author: Evencio Mediavilla, Santiago Arribas, Martin Roth, Jordi Cepa-Nogu, Francisco Snchez
  • Publication Date: 2010
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN-10: 0521895413
  • ISBN-13: 9780521895415
  • Pages: 289
  • Format: pdf
  • Size: 6.7M
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